Liverpool striker Andy Carroll has been included, but there is no place for Manchester United’s Rio Ferdinand.
The 33-year-old is a surprise omission but Chelsea’s John Terry has been named in a squad captained by Steven Gerrard.
There are call-ups for uncapped Arsenal midfielder Alex Oxlade-Chamberlain and Norwich goalkeeper John Ruddy.
Liverpool winger Stewart Downing and Manchester United striker Danny Welbeck have also been picked.
As expected, Wayne Rooney is selected despite being suspended for the first two games of England’s Group D campaign, against France on 11 June and Sweden four days later.
In addition to Carroll, Welbeck and Rooney, Hodgson will take Jermain Defoe – who has not played a competitive match for England since September 2010 – as a striking option.
Birmingham goalkeeper Jack Butland is among the list of five standby players, which also comprises Adam Johnson, Daniel Sturridge, Phil Jagielka and Jordan Henderson.
Barring injury, Johnson will miss out on a major tournament for a second time, having been axed from Fabio Capello’s provisional World Cup squad in 2010.
Hodgson’s wide players are Ashley Young, Theo Walcott, James Milner, Downing and Oxlade-Chamberlain.
There is no place for Manchester United’s Michael Carrick as Gareth Barry, Steven Gerrard, Frank Lampard and Scott Parker – who is struggling with an Achilles injury – take the central midfield berths.
Manchester City right-back Micah Richards also misses out as Hodgson names only seven orthodox defenders, including Phil Jones and Joleon Lescott, who are both capable of filling more than one position. Tottenham right-back Kyle Walker was ruled out with a toe injury.
The Football Association’s planned training camp in Spain has been cancelled.
Instead, England will meet up in Manchester on Wednesday before flying to Norway on Friday for their friendly in Oslo on 26 May.
Seven days later, they face Belgium at Wembley – although Ruddy will be missing having been given special dispensation to leave the squad for his wedding on 2 June.
Goalkeepers – Joe Hart, Robert Green, John Ruddy.
Defenders – Leighton Baines, Gary Cahill, Ashley Cole, Glen Johnson, Phil Jones, Joleon Lescott, John Terry.
Midfielders – Gareth Barry, Stewart Downing, Steven Gerrard, Frank Lampard, James Milner, Alex Oxlade-Chamberlain, Scott Parker, Theo Walcott, Ashley Young.
Strikers – Andy Carroll, Jermain Defoe, Wayne Rooney, Danny Welbeck.
Standby – Jack Butland, Phil Jagielka, Jordan Henderson, Adam Johnson, Daniel Sturridge.